What are the major geological processes and the resulting Landforms of Ethiopia

Erosional processes in arid and semi-arid regions include: mass wasting (surface creep, landslides, mud and debris flows, and rock topples and falls), water-driven or fluvial processes, and wind-driven or aeolian processes (dust, loess, sand dunes) Tectonic processes shape the landscape and form some of the most spectacular structures found in national parks, from the highest peaks in the Rocky Mountains to the faulted mountains and valleys in the Basin and Range Province. Understanding a park's plate tectonic history and setting can help you make sense of the landforms and scenery you see Geological Processes and the Resulting Landforms of Ethiopia and the Horn................. 17 2.4.1. The Precambrian Era Geologic Processes (4.5 billion - 600 million years ago)........ 17 2.4.2. The Paleozoic Era Geologic Processes (600 million - 225 million years ago)........... 18 2.4.3 Ethiopia is a land steeped in history and measured by extremes, from the cradle of civilization in the Rift Valley to the UNESCO World Heritage Simien Mountains, and the plateaus, lowlands,.. The geology of Ethiopia includes rocks of the Neoproterozoic East African Orogeny, Jurassic marine sediments and Quaternary rift -related volcanism. Events that greatly shaped Ethiopian geology is the assembly and break-up of Gondwana and the present-day rifting of Africa

Arid and Semi-arid Region Landforms - Geology (U

The present-day morphology of Ethiopia is linked to the formation of the Afar depression, MER, and Ethiopian plateaus. These events are linked to the impingement of one or more mantle plumes under the Afro-Arabian plate. The elevated topography of the Ethiopian plateaus is the result of profuse volcanic accumulation and successive uplift Mesozoic Era, second of Earth's three major geologic eras of Phanerozoic time. Its name is derived from the Greek term for middle life. The Mesozoic Era began 252.2 million years ago, following the conclusion of the Paleozoic Era, and ended 66 million years ago, at the dawn of the Cenozoic Era.(See the geologic time scale.)The major divisions of the Mesozoic Era are, from oldest to. Surface Processes and Human Impact. Landscapes are inherently unstable. Tectonic and climatic forces combine with the persistent movement of energy, wind, water, and material across Earths surface to result in evolving landforms. As society grows, it is increasingly important to understand the mechanisms, processes, and rates of surface change. Understanding Ethiopia is a detailed description of Ethiopia's geological story and enables non-specialist readers to share the author's thrill at gaining a deeper insight into the processes which produced, and continue to shape, this amazing country. Ethiopia's spectacular landscapes, ranging from mountains over 4500m high to salt plains 150m below sea level, are a reflection of the.

Tectonic Landforms and Features—under development

  1. Cenozoic Era, third of the major eras of Earth's history, beginning about 66 million years ago and extending to the present. It was the interval of time during which the continents assumed their modern configuration and geographic positions and during which Earth's flora and fauna evolved toward those of the present
  2. The East African Rift System. The East African Rift System (EARS) is one the geologic wonders of the world, a place where the earth's tectonic forces are presently trying to create new plates by splitting apart old ones. In simple terms, a rift can be thought of as a fracture in the earth's surface that widens over time, or more technically, as.
  3. ed by such natural environmenta
  4. Landscapes and Landforms of Ethiopia highlights all these topics including essential information about geology and tectonic framework, past and present climate, hydrology, geographical regions and long-term geomorphological history. It is a highly informative book, providing insight for readers with an interest in geography and geomorphology
  5. Ethiopia and up to 2,500 m in the north—shows the importance of this uplift. All the rivers are deeply incised (Adamson and Williams 1980), and various lithologies are exposed giving rise to a typical structural subhorizontal relief with tabular, stepped landforms. Major geological formations outcropping in the regio


  1. Landforms and Geologic Features Geologic Processes Plate Tectonics Astronomy Weather & Climate View More. The Mysterious Origins of the Eye of the Sahara. Tectonic Landforms, Results of Earth's Shifting Crust. Learn About Gaps (Uncomformities) in the Geological Record. Geologic Maps of the 50 United States
  2. The oldest rocks in Ethiopia are late Proterozoic to Paleozoic metamorphic rocks formed by Pan-African orogenic processes resulting in low-grade Most of the present landforms of Ethiopia took shape during the Cenozoic Era. Sites with geoheritage potential can be broadly categorized into two major classes: (1) natural geological and.
  3. The Ethiopian rift valley: geography and morphology. The Ethiopian sector of the East African Rift system extends for more than 1000 km in a NE-SW to N-S direction from the Afar depression, at Red Sea-Gulf of Aden junction, southwards to the Turkana depression.The southern boundary may be traced at latitude ~5°N, south of the area where the rift is divided into two branches (Chamo basin to.
  4. Africa, the second-largest continent, is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean.It is divided in half almost equally by the Equator. Africas physical geography, environment and resources, and human geography can be considered separately. Africa has eight major physical regions: the Sahara, the Sahel, the Ethiopian Highlands, the savanna, the.
  5. A rift valley is a lowland region that forms where Earth's tectonic plates move apart, or rift.Rift valleys are found both on land and at the bottom of the ocean, where they are created by the process of seafloor spreading.Rift valleys differ from river valleys and glacial valleys in that they are created by tectonic activity and not the process of erosion
  6. Hazardous Processes Geology is the study of the Earth and its history. Geologic Processes effect every human on the Earth all of the time, but are most noticeable when they cause loss of life or property. Such life or property threatening processes are called natural disasters. Among them are: Earthquakes; Eruptions of Volcanoe
  7. Science Geomorphological processes, forms and features in the surroundings of the Melka Kunture Palaeolithic site, Ethiopia MichaelMaerker a,b,c, CalogeroSchillaci b,d, RitaT.Melise, JanKropáčekb,f, AlbertoBosino a, VítVilímekg, Volker Hochschildb, Christian Sommerb,c, Flavio Altamurah and Margherita Mussih aDepartment of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

What Type of Landforms Cover Ethiopia? USA Toda

Plate Tectonics as Expressed in Geological Landforms and Events. Resources in this top level collection a) must have scored Exemplary or Very Good in all five review categories, and must also rate as Exemplary in at least three of the five categories. The five categories included in the peer review process are Sedimentary rocks are the most common rock types which are freely exposed on the earth's surface. They are formed from other rock materials since they are made up from the buildup of weathered and eroded pre-existing rocks. The weathering, erosion and the eventual compaction of igneous, metamorphic or formerly structured sedimentary rocks among other biological sedimentations leads to the. Ethiopia is a landlocked country in East Africa occupying an area of 1,104,300 sq. km. The country has one of the most rugged and complex topographies in the continent. The five major topographic features of the country are the Rift Valley, Western and Eastern Highlands, and Western and Eastern Lowlands Great oxygenation event. 2.4 Ga, photosynthetic organisms thrived, and there was a buildup of oxygen, because the plants had enough oxygen. The oxygen built up in the atmosphere. Created Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) Hadean Eon. Earth bombarded by planetesimals, very hot, dangerous gases in the amosphere The formation of rocks results in three general types of rock formations. Igneous rocks form from magma (intrusive igneous rocks) or lava (extrusive igneous rocks). Sedimentary rocks form from sediments worn away from other rocks. Metamorphic rocks occur when heat and/or pressure impact other rocks

Critique and interpret major types of evidence supporting the Theory of Plate Tectonics. Plate tectonics is the most important concept in modern geology. This section will introduce you to the concept of plate tectonics, how it works, why it is important and how it is shaping the world today The rainy season in the Lake Tana basin occurs from June to September, resulting from the movement of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). When the ITCZ is located to the north of the equator, Ethiopia receives moist air masses from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans (Kebede et al., 2006) Why Geography Matters. Imagine trying to find two different grocery stores. One is just off the main highway, without too much traffic, and has ample parking Soil erosion is the main driver of land degradation in Ethiopia, and in the whole region of East Africa. This study was conducted at the Northeast Wollega in West Ethiopia to estimate the soil losses by means of the Revised Universal Soil Loss 5 Equation (RUSLE). The purpose of this paper is to identify erosion spot areas an

Geology of Ethiopia - Wikipedi

Frost fissures.These are wedge-shaped structures interpreted to be casts of thermal contraction cracks. Since the development of frost fissures only occurs under permafrost conditions and intense cooling (-15 o to -20 o C) these are first order indicators of periglacial environments. Fossil frost fissures, in the form of frost fissure polygons and ice- and sand wedge casts, have been. The main geological work was carried out from the village of Njemps on the shores of Lake Baringo, where they mapped the geology of the western wall of the Kamasin Scarp We have already seen that Geomorphic processes can create land forms. We also know that endogenic forces (internal) and exogenic forces (external) are the two main types of geomorphic processes which results in earth movements. In this post, let's study endogenic forces in detail. Endogenic Forces - Internal forces in detail Endogenic forces a can be classified as slow movements (diastrophic. 10.4 Plates, Plate Motions, and Plate-Boundary Processes. Continental drift and sea-floor spreading became widely accepted around 1965 as more and more geologists started thinking in these terms. By the end of 1967, Earth's surface had been mapped into a series of plates (Figure 10.16). The major plates are Eurasia, Pacific, India, Australia.

The main rivers of Africa include the Nile, Niger, Congo, and Zambezi.The Nile River competes with the Amazon for the status as the longest river in the world; the White Nile branch begins in Lake Victoria in East Africa, and the Blue Nile branch starts in Lake Tana in Ethiopia. The Niger flows through West Africa; its mouth is in Nigeria It lists the main uses of some of the GY 111L minerals in the collection. Truth be told, there are many other uses of geological materials that are have not listed here and of course many other minerals that are important to our society that are also not listed here. Definition time Description. Written for anyone interested in coastal geomorphology, this is the complete guide to the processes at work on our coastlines and the resulting features seen in coastal systems across the world. Accessible to students from a range of disciplines, the quantitative approach of this book helps to build a solid understanding of wave.

The Cosmolian program for simulating aeolian dynamics and its application to central Australia. Introducing Cosmolian, a program for modelling the chronological evolution of aeolian landscapes based on luminescence and cosmogenic nuclides data. Upper panel: The program's interface; (a) Simulation module United States Geological Survey *The earthquake had no observable impact on Kilauea or Mauna Loa volcanoes. Its cause is related to stress from the weight of the island on the underlying ocean crust and mantle. These earthquakes are relatively common and not directly related to volcanic processes. The river Nile forms is: waterfalls, cataracts, Lake Nasser, the Nile Delta, the Nile River Valley. These are the land forms a long the river Nile

the description of plausible processes for converting one rock type to another. a change in outlook on Earth processes from a catastrophic to a uniformitarian one. all of the above. none of the above. One of geology's greatest contributions to human thought is: the realization that the world is round Deformation Deformation processes alter the earth's crust by extreme stress or pressure in the crust and mantle. Most deformation occurs along plate margins from plate tectonic movements. Folding and faulting are the most common deformation processes. Folding occurs when rocks are compressed such that the layers buckle and fold. Ductile deformation Define geologic process. geologic process synonyms, geologic process pronunciation, geologic process translation, English dictionary definition of geologic process. A geoscene wall near the main entrance to the center will serve as a teaching tool for earth science and geology students thesaurus, literature, geography, and other. Scientific observations are made every day, and yet we rarely are able to comprehend the changes our Earth experiences on a grand scale. Small movements, blips on the radar, and non-dramatic shifts in the geography and biology of our world may not seem like great alterations in our environment, but in totality can result in major changes in the composition of where we live

What are Geological Processes? (with pictures

For example, if landforms resulting from the analysis do not satisfy a priori expectations based on field data and/or existing classic maps (cross validation), then the classification parameters are reset. This process may be iterative, which depends on the users' knowledge of the landscape under investigation (Reuter and Nelson, 2008) I think this question is asking about what the results are of the functioning of plate tectonics. So, plate tectonics: * Recycles materials from the surface by dragging it below the surface. This allows it to melt and mix with other substances but.. The main motivation of this work is to reveal the role of geological source of metal contamination in vegetables that are grown in metals rich soils in and around the city of Addis Ababa. It, mainly, focuses on vegetables such as lettuce, Swiss chard, Ethiopian kale, and carrot in addition to soils and irrigation water. The vegetabl lineaments i.e. geologic structures. Geomorphology considerations in groundwater potential assessment hopes to incorporate the indirect influence of morphmetric variables such as relief and slope on rainfall availability, drainage vegetation cover etc. The landforms are the result of geologic process, which cannot readily be directly accounted for Ethiopia's dramatic population expansion over the last 50 years, and future predictions of a growing population (see figure 2), has placed extreme pressure on the land, resulting in accelerated erosion, soil degradation, and rural impoverishment

Geography of Ethiopia - Wikipedi

Ethiopia's balance of trade deficit can be largely explained by the unequal terms of trade between agricultural commodities (the country's major exports) and capital goods (Ethiopia's major imports). International markets accord a higher price to commodities that are manufactured — or value-added — than to those that are in their raw form The main valley is classed as a continental rift, extending from 12 degrees north to 15 degrees south of our planet's equator. It extends a length of 3,500 km and intersects major portions of the modern countries of Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, and Mozambique and minor portions of others Many of Kenya's landforms are the result of its location on the East African Rift. Kenya's territory takes in several rift valley lakes, including part of the shoreline of two of the largest, Lake Victoria and Lake Turkana. Kenya is also dominated by the rift valley. Tectonic activity means that the geology is extremely complex As a result, the Arabian peninsula was rotated and torn off the East coast of Africa, and a series of deep faults have begun to fracture the African plate. Late in the Cenozoic, the main rift valley running through Ethiopia, Kenya, and points south, became the home of several species of large, noisy, and nearly hairless apes

Geography, Chapter-2 Flashcards Quizle

in the urban expansion process. Several studies have applied this model in di erent geographical contexts [27,29,30]. For example, Mosammam [13] found a dramatic increase in the built-up area, mainly occurring along major roads and highways, resulting in an enormous decrease in agricultural land in Qom, Iran The major landform categories of the Earth's surface include such large-scale topographic features as mountains, plains, plateaus and valleys. Climate plays an important role in sculpting landforms, as evidenced by distinctive desert landscapes influenced by extremely arid conditions

What are Landforms and Major Types of Landforms on the

Geography and Geology. Ethiopia is a landlocked country in northeast Africa that shares borders with Kenya, South Sudan, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia (figure 2). A land of extremes with fertile grasslands, expansive deserts, tranquil lakes, and massive canyons, it hosts one of the sources of the Nile River but also the world's. The geology of northeast Africa is dominated by two of Africa's biggest geological structures: the African Rift Valley and the Mozambique Belt. The African rift zone is a geologically young feature that is still active and responsible for massive basalt plateaus that make up most of Ethiopia's highland State borders. Located in north-eastern Africa, the Republic of Sudan has a total area of 1.9 million square kilometers. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the north-west, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the south-west, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the south-east, and the Red Sea to the east A tour which combines 2 different natural phenomena: Danakil Depression (the lowest place - 125 m below the sea level) and Semien Mountains («the roof of Africa with the highest elevation of 4620m, Mount Ras Dashen). Both of them are the parts of Great Rift Valley with the same geological process: the result of Plate Tectonic process which dates back to 30 million years The main climate drivers affecting the hydro-geomorphological dynamics in Mediterranean badlands (dry and wet) were identified: weathering processes are mainly related to wetting-drying cycles and freeze-thaw cycles in dry and wet badlands, respectively and rainfall amount appears as the main driver for hydrological response, and rainfall.

Geology of Leucite Hills. The Leucite Hills are on the north flank of the Rock Springs Uplift, 30 miles northeast of Rock Springs. They are a series of mesas and buttes whose tops, rising hundreds of feet above the floor of the Red Desert, mark a former level of the basin floor. They were named by the 40th Parallel Survey in 1871 for the. The Danxia landforms, found in China's Gansu Province, are made of strips of red sandstone that were deposited over millions of years, like slices of a layered cake 1Department of Geology and Geography, Mount Holyoke College, 50 College Street, South Hadley, MA 01075; mmarkley@mtholyoke.edu ABSTRACT Most undergraduate-level geoscience texts offer a paltry introduction to the nuanced approach to hypothesis testing that geoscientists use when conducting research and writing proposals

Landscapes and Landforms of Ethiopia springerprofessional

(PDF) Geology of Ethiopia: A Review and Geomorphological

Soil erosion in the northwestern Amhara region, Ethiopia has been a subject of anxiety, resulting in a major environmental threat to the sustainability and productive capacity of agricultural areas. In the present thesis selected soil properties, hydrological and sediment dynamics were assessed for a watershed, while predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties was also done. The 53. Lots of cool things. At divergent boundaries, you have upwelling magma. At convergent boundaries, one plate is subducted below the other and you get new terranes scraped off and accreted from the subducting plate onto the stationary plate. Behind.

Video: Geology of Ethiopia: A Review and Geomorphological

Major Rivers of Ethiopia Water resources. Ethiopia has nine major rivers and twelve big lakes. Lake Tana, for example, in the north is the source of the Blue Nile. However, apart from the big rivers and major tributaries, there is hardly any perennial flow in areas below 1,500 m Neotectonism in the Indian Subcontinent portrays the evolution of the extraordinary landforms and landscapes of the subcontinent, constituted by multiple terranes of contrasted lithostructural architecture and distinctive geomorphic layout—each with an altogether different geological history. It chronicles events of crustal unrest or tectonic. Drainage pattern is the pattern formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin.They are governed by the topography of the land, whether a particular region is dominated by hard or soft rocks, and the gradient of the land. Geomorphologists and hydrologists often view streams as being part of drainage basins. A drainage basin is the topographic region from which a stream. Spits and Barriers, Coastal Dunes, Intertidal Landforms, Salt Marshes and Mangroves, Estuaries and Lagoons, Deltas, and Coral and Algal Reefs offer effective introduc-tions to the operation of these different coastal environ-ments, their fundamental processes and resulting landforms and characteristics. Chapters 4 and 5, on Cliff

A plateau is formed by a process of geological uplift, either due to the collision of continental plates, pressure from magma below or the burial of land by volcanic lava and ash flows, resulting in a high, flat surface. These are very similar to processes that give rise to mountains and mountain ranges. The only major difference is that a. It is a Piedmont plateau (Arid Landforms) lying in southern part of Argentina. It is a rain shadow desert plateau. It is an important region for sheep rearing. Altiplano Plateau or Bolivian Plateau. It is an intermontane plateau which is located between two ranges of Andes Mountain. It is a major area of Tin reserves. Massif Centra The water that is generated by this process is known as acid rock drainage (ARD). ARD can occur naturally where sulphide-bearing rocks are near the surface. Figure 14.4.7 Acidic runoff at the abandoned Mt. Washington Mine near Courtenay, B.CThe issue of ARD is a major environmental concern at both operating mines and abandoned mines (see.

Mesozoic Era geochronology Britannic

How Landforms Affect Global Temperature and Weather. The global temperature and weather is to a large extent a direct result of the sun's effect to our planet. Together with the atmosphere and the rotation of the earth on its axis. The earth on which weather moves on has its own effect on the weather degradation in Ethiopia. As a result, negative major plant nutrient balances are common problems in many parts of Ethiopia (Elias et al., 1998). Different soil types exhibit varying characteristics due to differences in micro-morphological, morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical properties (Ukut et al., 2014)

(fig.1) C. Processes Geomorphology: is the study of the processes responsible for formationof landforms. Grove Karl Gilbert was the first modern processes geomorphologist by studyingfluvial and its processes on Henry mountain in Utah, USA and investigated the transport of debrisdown from up. 5. D The USGS creates detailed maps of our Nation's shorelines, dunes, and coastal cliffs, and studies how storm processes impact our coastlines. This information is used to predict and map coastal vulnerability to changes caused by major storms, long-term shoreline erosion, sea-level rise, and sea cliff erosion WKU geology major conducts research in Ethiopia. Friday, August 26th, 2016; WKU geology major Deborah Flynn, a senior from Bowling Green, traveled to Ethiopia this summer to collect data for an ongoing research project. and by an ACS-PRF grant awarded to Dr. Nahid Gani in the Department of Geography and Geology

The `permanent charge' component is the result of isomorphic substitution, e.g. of Si4+ by Al3+ or Al3+ by Mg2+, in the crystal lattices of clay minerals. The negative permanent charge is independent of soil-pH or ion concentrations of the soil solution. Kaolinite, the main clay mineral in Ferralsols, has only a very small permanent charge 'The Anthropocene' is a newly proposed geological time unit: the age of humans. The term was suggested in the year 2000 in the middle of a committee meeting by Paul Crutzen, a Nobel prize-winning atmospheric geochemist (carrying on the grand tradition started by William Smith of contributing a fundamental change to the discipline of geology from outside its heady ranks) This study presents the extent, history and process of forest decline in Awassa watershed, south central Ethiopia. By combining different data sources such as satellite images, social surveys and historical documents, forest decline is described quantitatively and qualitatively and the main causes behind this process are identified Dr. Gebremichael reflected, Ethiopia has one of the world's largest climatic variability, resulting in a highly variable distribution of water in space and time. One major challenge to Ethiopian water resources planning and management has been the lack of reliable measurements. . Looking at the major landforms and altitudinal variations, the soils of Ethiopia can be grouped as highland soils and lowlands soils (AHI 1997, Hurni et al. 2007). Divided by the Ethiopian Rift Valley, the highlands have plateaus and mountain landforms with adequate rainfall, moderate to cool temperatures and a dense human population